Kidney Cancer Prognosis
In the analysis of cancer survival rates and prognosis, staging is the process of finding out how widespread the disease. Furthermore, surgeons use it to determine what type of treatment they will apply to their patient. Lastly, doctors perform it by examining the location and the type of the cancer tissue. (1)
Staging is important in kidney cancer because it can determine different prognoses at the various stages and therefore doctors administer different treatments accordingly. It helps to determine one’s health condition to know if the cancer needs treatment or not.
Most physicians use FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system when performing staging processes. It relies entirely on surgery results.
The staging factors include:
- Tumor: Extent of the primary tumor
- Node: On the other hand is the presence or absence of metastasis to nearby lymph nodes
- Metastasis: Presence or absence of distant metastasis
Kidney Cancer Staging System
The T, N, and M of a person are combined in a process called stage grouping to determine the stage of cancer which is expressed in Roman numerals. Some stages are also divided into sub-stages which are indicated by letters and numbers. Furthermore, the FIGO staging system is similar to the AJCC stages, except that stage 0 does not exist in the FIGO system.
The following are the steps of the staging system:
- Localized/ Stage I (T1, N0, M0): This is the stage where the cancer has spread and invaded the kidney, while the tumor is still smaller in size. The cancer has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes and distant sites.
- Early Stage/ Stage II (T2, N0, M0): The cancer has grown beyond the kidney and but has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The tumor appears to be larger.
- Stage III (T3, N0, M0): In this stage, the cancer has grown into a major vein such as the renal artery and vena cava. It has also grown into the tissues around the kidney and not into the adrenal gland. However, the cancer has not spread to the nearby lymph nodes and distant sites.
- Metastasis/ Stage IV: Lastly, this is the most advanced stage of kidney cancer. The cancer has spread to the nearby organs, lymph nodes, distant sites and other body parts.
Kidney Cancer Survival Rates
Doctors use survival rates as a way of discussing one’s outlook (prognosis). A five-year survival rate is the percentage of patients who lived for at least five years after diagnosis of cancer. The kidney cancer survival rates also depend on the previous outcomes of large numbers of people who at one point happened to have cancer.
However, this can change depending on one’s general health, the grade of the cancer, how well one responds to treatment and the treatment doctors administered. However, these rates are estimates and only apply to first cases of cancer.
- Localized/ Stage I: The 5-year survival rate for this stage is about 81%
- Early Stage/ Stage II: On the other hand, the 5-year survival rate for this stage is about 74%
- Stage III: The 5-year survival rate for this stage is about 53%
- Metastasis/ Stage IV: Lastly, the 5-year survival rate for this stage is about 8%
Survival Rates In The UCLA Integrated Staging
Localized kidney cancer (cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes or distant organs)
- Low-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 97%
- Intermediate-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 81%
- High-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 62%
Metastasized kidney cancer (cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes or distant organs)
- Low-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 41%
- Intermediate-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 18%
- High-risk group: 5-year survival rate is about 8%